Chapter XX - MAGGA VAGGA - The Way or The Path



Sabbe dhamma anatta'ti yada pannaya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiya.

All states (dhamma) are without self.When one sees this in wisdom,
then he becomes dispassionate towards the painful. This is the Path to Purity. [279]

XX:04 Meditation on anatta

The story is the same as the stories on anicca and dukkha. Here, the Buddha on reflection found that still another group of bhikkhus had meditated on insubstantiality or non-self (anatta). So he said, 'Bhikkhus, all component things are insubstantial, they are not subject to one's control.'


  1. Impermanence (anicca), sorrow (dukkha) and no-soul (anatta) are the three characteristics of all things conditioned by causes. It is by contemplating them that one realizes Nibbana. The aspirant may choose any characteristic that appeals to him most.Anattaor no-soul is the crux of Buddhism. The termsankharawhich is applied to any conditioned thing is used in the two previous verses, while in the third verse the termdhammais used. The commentator interprets dhamma as the 'aggregates' (khandha). The same interpretation he gives tosankharatoo. If bydhammais meantsankhara, there is no reason for the Buddha to make a differentiation in the third verse.Sankharais applied only to those things conditioned by causes.Dhammacan be applied to both conditioned and unconditioned things and states. It embraces both conditioned and unconditioned things including Nibbana. In order to show that even Nibbana is free from a permanent soul the Buddha used the termdhammain the third verse.Nibbanais a positive supramundane state and is without a soul. 'All the elements of being are non-self. When one by wisdom realizes (this), he heeds not (is superior to) (this world of) sorrow, this is the path to purity'. Radhakrishnan.